String Class

Contains methods for the String primitive data type.

Namespace

System

Usage

For more information on Strings, see Primitive Data Types.

String Methods

The following are methods for String.

abbreviate(Integer)

Returns an abbreviated version of the String, of the specified length and with ellipses appended if the current String is longer than the specified length; otherwise, returns the original String without ellipses.

Signature

public String abbreviate(Integer maxWidth)

Parameters

maxWidth
Type: Integer
If maxWidth is less than four, this method throws a run-time exception.

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s = 'Hello Maximillian';
String s2 = s.abbreviate(8);
System.assertEquals('Hello...', s2);
System.assertEquals(8, s2.length());

abbreviate(Integer, Integer)

Returns an abbreviated version of the String, starting at the specified character offset and of the specified length. The returned String has ellipses appended at the start and the end if characters have been removed at these locations.

Signature

public String abbreviate(Integer maxWidth, Integer offset)

Parameters

maxWidth
Type: Integer
Note that the offset is not necessarily the leftmost character in the returned String or the first character following the ellipses, but it appears somewhere in the result.  Regardless, abbreviate won’t return a String of length greater than maxWidth.If maxWidth is too small, this method throws a run-time exception.
offset
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s = 'Hello Maximillian';
// Start at M
String s2 = s.abbreviate(9,6); System.assertEquals('...Max...', s2); System.assertEquals(9, s2.length());

capitalize()

Returns the current String with the first letter changed to title case.

Signature

public String capitalize()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

This method is based on the Character.toTitleCase(char) Java method.

Example

String s = 'hello maximillian';
String s2 = s.capitalize();
System.assertEquals('Hello maximillian', s2);

center(Integer)

Returns a version of the current String of the specified size padded with spaces on the left and right, so that it appears in the center. If the specified size is smaller than the current String size, the entire String is returned without added spaces.

Signature

public String center(Integer size)

Parameters

size
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s = 'hello';
String s2 = s.center(9);
System.assertEquals(
   '  hello  ',
   s2);

center(Integer, String)

Returns a version of the current String of the specified size padded with the specified String on the left and right, so that it appears in the center. If the specified size is smaller than the current String size, the entire String is returned without padding.

Signature

public String center(Integer size, String padStr)

Parameters

size
Type: Integer
padStr
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s = 'hello';
String s2 = s.center(9, '-');
System.assertEquals('--hello--', s2);

charAt(Integer)

Returns the value of the character at the specified index.

Signature

public Integer charAt(Integer index)

Parameters

index
Type: Integer
The index of the character to get the value of.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The integer value of the character.

Usage

The charAt method returns the value of the character pointed to by the specified index. If the index points to the beginning of a surrogate pair (the high-surrogate code point), this method returns only the high-surrogate code point. To return the supplementary code point corresponding to a surrogate pair, call codePointAt instead.

Example

This example gets the value of the first character at index 0.

String str = 'Ω is Omega.';
System.assertEquals(937, str.charAt(0));

This example shows the difference between charAt and codePointAt. The example calls these methods on escaped supplementary Unicode characters. charAt(0) returns the high surrogate value, which corresponds to \uD835. codePointAt(0) returns the value for the entire surrogate pair.

String str = '\uD835\uDD0A';
System.assertEquals(55349, str.charAt(0), 
    'charAt(0) didn\'t return the high surrogate.');
System.assertEquals(120074, str.codePointAt(0),
    'codePointAt(0) didn\'t return the entire two-character supplementary value.');

codePointAt(Integer)

Returns the Unicode code point value at the specified index.

Signature

public Integer codePointAt(Integer index)

Parameters

index
Type: Integer
The index of the characters (Unicode code units) in the string. The index range is from zero to the string length minus one.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The Unicode code point value at the specified index.

Usage

If the index points to the beginning of a surrogate pair (the high-surrogate code point), and the character value at the following index points to the low-surrogate code point, this method returns the supplementary code point corresponding to this surrogate pair. Otherwise, this method returns the character value at the given index.

For more information on Unicode and surrogate pairs, see The Unicode Consortium.

Example

This example gets the code point value of the first character at index 0, which is the escaped Omega character. Also, the example gets the code point at index 20, which corresponds to the escaped supplementary Unicode characters (a pair of characters). Finally, it verifies that the escaped and unescaped forms of Omega have the same code point values.

The supplementary characters in this example (\\uD835\\uDD0A) correspond to mathematical fraktur capital G: Mathemtical Fraktur Capital G symbol

String str = '\u03A9 is Ω (Omega), and \uD835\uDD0A ' + 
    ' is Fraktur Capital G.';
System.assertEquals(937, str.codePointAt(0));
System.assertEquals(120074, str.codePointAt(20));
// Escaped or unescaped forms of the same character have the same code point
System.assertEquals(str.codePointAt(0), str.codePointAt(5));

codePointBefore(Integer)

Returns the Unicode code point value that occurs before the specified index.

Signature

public Integer codePointBefore(Integer index)

Parameters

index
Type: Integer
The index before the Unicode code point that is to be returned. The index range is from one to the string length.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The character or Unicode code point value that occurs before the specified index.

Usage

If the character value at index-1 is the low-surrogate code point, and index-2 is not negative and the character at this index location is the high-surrogate code point, this method returns the supplementary code point corresponding to this surrogate pair. If the character value at index-1 is an unpaired low-surrogate or high-surrogate code point, the surrogate value is returned.

For more information on Unicode and surrogate pairs, see The Unicode Consortium.

Example

This example gets the code point value of the first character (before index 1), which is the escaped Omega character. Also, the example gets the code point at index 20, which corresponds to the escaped supplementary characters (the two characters before index 22).

String str = '\u03A9 is Ω (Omega), and \uD835\uDD0A ' + 
    ' is Fraktur Capital G.';
System.assertEquals(937, str.codePointBefore(1));
System.assertEquals(120074, str.codePointBefore(22));

codePointCount(Integer, Integer)

Returns the number of Unicode code points within the specified text range.

Signature

public Integer codePointCount(Integer beginIndex, Integer endIndex)

Parameters

beginIndex
Type: Integer
The index of the first character in the range.
endIndex
Type: Integer
The index after the last character in the range.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The number of Unicode code points within the specified range.

Usage

The specified range begins at beginIndex and ends at endIndex—1. Unpaired surrogates within the text range count as one code point each.

Example

This example writes the count of code points in a substring that contains an escaped Unicode character and another substring that contains Unicode supplementary characters, which count as one code point.

String str = '\u03A9 and \uD835\uDD0A characters.';
System.debug('Count of code points for ' + str.substring(0,1) 
             + ': ' + str.codePointCount(0,1));
System.debug('Count of code points for ' + str.substring(6,8) 
             + ': ' + str.codePointCount(6,8));

// Output:
// Count of code points for Ω: 1
// Count of code points for 𝔊: 1

compareTo(String)

Compares two strings lexicographically, based on the Unicode value of each character in the Strings.

Signature

public Integer compareTo(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Usage

The result is:

  • A negative Integer if the String that called the method lexicographically precedes compString
  • A positive Integer if the String that called the method lexicographically follows compString
  • Zero if the Strings are equal

If there is no index position at which the Strings differ, then the shorter String lexicographically precedes the longer String.

Note that this method returns 0 whenever the equals method returns true.

Example

String myString1 = 'abcde';
String myString2 = 'abcd';
Integer result = 
   myString1.compareTo(myString2);
System.assertEquals(result, 1);

contains(String)

Returns true if and only if the String that called the method contains the specified sequence of characters in the compString.

Signature

public Boolean contains(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String myString1 = 'abcde';
String myString2 = 'abcd';
Boolean result = 
   myString1.contains(myString2);
System.assertEquals(result, true);

containsAny(String)

Returns true if the current String contains any of the characters in the specified String; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean containsAny(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s = 'hello';
Boolean b1 = s.containsAny('hx');
Boolean b2 = s.containsAny('x');
System.assertEquals(true, b1);
System.assertEquals(false, b2);

containsIgnoreCase(String)

Returns true if the current String contains the specified sequence of characters without regard to case; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean containsIgnoreCase(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s = 'hello';
Boolean b = 
   s.containsIgnoreCase('HE');
System.assertEquals(
   true,
   b);

containsNone(String)

Returns true if the current String doesn’t contain the specified sequence of characters; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean containsNone(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String
If compString is an empty string or the current String is empty, this method returns true. If compString is null, this method returns a run-time exception.

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s1 = 'abcde';
System.assert(s1.containsNone('fg'));

containsOnly(String)

Returns true if the current String contains characters only from the specified sequence of characters and not any other characters; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean containsOnly(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s1 = 'abba';
String s2 = 'abba xyz';
Boolean b1 = 
   s1.containsOnly('abcd');
System.assertEquals(
   true,
   b1);
Boolean b2 = 
   s2.containsOnly('abcd');
System.assertEquals(
   false,
   b2);

containsWhitespace()

Returns true if the current String contains any white space characters; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean containsWhitespace()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s = 'Hello Jane';
System.assert(s.containsWhitespace()); //true
s = 'HelloJane ';
System.assert(s.containsWhitespace()); //true
s = ' HelloJane';
System.assert(s.containsWhitespace()); //true
s = 'HelloJane';
System.assert(!s.containsWhitespace()); //false

countMatches(String)

Returns the number of times the specified substring occurs in the current String.

Signature

public Integer countMatches(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String s = 'Hello Jane';
System.assertEquals(1, s.countMatches('Hello'));
s = 'Hello Hello';
System.assertEquals(2, s.countMatches('Hello'));
s = 'Hello hello';
System.assertEquals(1, s.countMatches('Hello'));

deleteWhitespace()

Returns a version of the current String with all white space characters removed.

Signature

public String deleteWhitespace()

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = ' Hello Jane ';
String s2 = 'HelloJane';
System.assertEquals(s2, s1.deleteWhitespace());

difference(String)

Returns the difference between the current String and the specified String.

Signature

public String difference(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String
If compString is an empty string, this method returns an empty string.If compString is null, this method throws a run-time exception.

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s = 'Hello Jane';
String d1 = 
   s.difference('Hello Max');
System.assertEquals(
   'Max',
   d1);
String d2 = 
   s.difference('Goodbye');
System.assertEquals(
   'Goodbye',
   d2);

endsWith(String)

Returns true if the String that called the method ends with the specified suffix.

Signature

public Boolean endsWith(String suffix)

Parameters

suffix
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s = 'Hello Jason';
System.assert(s.endsWith('Jason'));

endsWithIgnoreCase(String)

Returns true if the current String ends with the specified suffix; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean endsWithIgnoreCase(String suffix)

Parameters

suffix
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s = 'Hello Jason';
System.assert(s.endsWithIgnoreCase('jason'));

equals(String)

Returns true if the compString is not null and represents the same binary sequence of characters as the String that called the method. This method is true whenever the compareTo method returns 0. For example:

Signature

public Boolean equals(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Usage

Note that the == operator also performs String comparison, but is case-insensitive to match Apex semantics. (== is case-sensitive for ID comparison for the same reason.)

Example

String myString1 = 'abcde';
String myString2 = 'abcd';
Boolean result = 
   myString1.equals(myString2);
System.assertEquals(result, false);

equalsIgnoreCase(String)

Returns true if the compString is not null and represents the same sequence of characters as the String that called the method, ignoring case. For example:

Signature

public Boolean equalsIgnoreCase(String compString)

Parameters

compString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String myString1 = 'abcd';
String myString2 = 'ABCD';
Boolean result = 
myString1.equalsIgnoreCase(myString2);
System.assertEquals(result, true);

escapeCsv()

Returns a String for a CSV column enclosed in double quotes, if required.

Signature

public String escapeCsv()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

If the String contains a comma, newline or double quote, the returned String is enclosed in double quotes. Also, any double quote characters in the String are escaped with another double quote.

If the String doesn’t contain a comma, newline or double quote, it is returned unchanged.

Example

String s1 = 'Max1, "Max2"';
String s2 = s1.escapeCsv();
System.assertEquals('"Max1, ""Max2"""', s2);

escapeEcmaScript()

Escapes the characters in the String using EcmaScript String rules.

Signature

public String escapeEcmaScript()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

The only difference between Apex strings and EcmaScript strings is that in EcmaScript, a single quote and forward-slash (/) are escaped.

Example

String s1 = '"grade": 3.9/4.0';
String s2 = s1.escapeEcmaScript();
System.debug(s2);
// Output is:
// \"grade\": 3.9\/4.0 System.assertEquals( '\\"grade\\": 3.9\\/4.0', s2);

escapeHtml3()

Escapes the characters in a String using HTML 3.0 entities.

Signature

public String escapeHtml3()

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 
   '"<Black&White>"';
String s2 = 
   s1.escapeHtml3();
System.debug(s2);
// Output:
// &quot;&lt;Black&amp;
// White&gt;&quot;

escapeHtml4()

Escapes the characters in a String using HTML 4.0 entities.

Signature

public String escapeHtml4()

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 
   '"<Black&White>"';
String s2 = 
   s1.escapeHtml4();
System.debug(s2);
// Output:
// &quot;&lt;Black&amp;
// White&gt;&quot;

escapeJava()

Returns a String whose characters are escaped using Java String rules. Characters escaped include quotes and control characters, such as tab, backslash, and carriage return characters.

Signature

public String escapeJava()

Return Value

Type: String

The escaped string.

Example

// Input string contains quotation marks
                                    
String s = 'Company: "Salesforce.com"'; String escapedStr = s.escapeJava(); // Output string has the quotes escpaded System.assertEquals('Company: \\"Salesforce.com\\"', escapedStr);

escapeSingleQuotes(String)

Returns a String with the escape character (\) added before any single quotation marks in the String s.

Signature

public static String escapeSingleQuotes(String stringToEscape)

Parameters

stringToEscape
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

This method is useful when creating a dynamic SOQL statement, to help prevent SOQL injection. For more information on dynamic SOQL, see Dynamic SOQL.

Example

String s = '\'Hello Jason\'';
system.debug(s); // Outputs 'Hello Jason'
String escapedStr = String.escapeSingleQuotes(s); // Outputs \'Hello Jason\' system.debug(escapedStr); // Escapes the string \\\' to string \' system.assertEquals('\\\'Hello Jason\\\'', escapedStr);

escapeUnicode()

Returns a String whose Unicode characters are escaped to a Unicode escape sequence.

Signature

public String escapeUnicode()

Return Value

Type: String

The escaped string.

Example

String s = 'De onde você é?';
String escapedStr = s.escapeUnicode();
System.assertEquals('De onde voc\\u00EA \\u00E9?', escapedStr);

escapeXml()

Escapes the characters in a String using XML entities.

Signature

public String escapeXml()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

Supports only the five basic XML entities (gt, lt, quot, amp, apos). Does not support DTDs or external entities. Unicode characters greater than 0x7f are not escaped.

Example

String s1 = 
   '"<Black&White>"';
String s2 = 
   s1.escapeXml();
System.debug(s2);
// Output:
// &quot;&lt;Black&amp;
// White&gt;&quot;

format(String, List<String>)

Treat the current string as a pattern that should be used for substitution in the same manner as apex:outputText.

Signature

public static String format(String stringToFormat, List<String> formattingArguments)

Parameters

stringToFormat
Type: String
formattingArguments
Type: List<String>

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String placeholder = 'Hello {0}, {1} is cool!';
List<String> fillers = new String[]{'Jason','Apex'};
String formatted = String.format(placeholder, fillers);
System.assertEquals('Hello Jason, Apex is cool!', formatted);

fromCharArray(List<Integer>)

Returns a String from the values of the list of integers.

Signature

public static String fromCharArray(List<Integer> charArray)

Parameters

charArray
Type: List<Integer>

Return Value

Type: String

Example

List<Integer> charArr= new Integer[]{74};
String convertedChar = String.fromCharArray(charArr);
System.assertEquals('J', convertedChar);

getChars()

Returns an array of character values that represent the characters in this string.

Signature

public List<Integer> getChars()

Return Value

Type: List<String>

A list of integers, each corresponding to a character value in the string.

Example

This sample converts a string to a character array and then gets the first array element, which corresponds to the value of 'J'.

String str = 'Jane goes fishing.';
Integer[] chars = str.getChars();
// Get the value of 'J'
System.assertEquals(74, chars[0]);

getCommonPrefix(List<String>)

Returns the initial sequence of characters as a String that is common to all the specified Strings.

Signature

public static String getCommonPrefix(List<String> strings)

Parameters

strings
Type: List<String>

Return Value

Type: String

Example

List<String> ls = new List<String>{'SFDCApex', 'SFDCVisualforce'};
String prefix = String.getCommonPrefix(ls);
System.assertEquals('SFDC', prefix);

getLevenshteinDistance(String)

Returns the Levenshtein distance between the current String and the specified String.

Signature

public Integer getLevenshteinDistance(String stringToCompare)

Parameters

stringToCompare
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Usage

The Levenshtein distance is the number of changes needed to change one String into another. Each change is a single character modification (deletion, insertion or substitution).

Example

String s = 'Hello Joe';
Integer i = s.getLevenshteinDistance('Hello Max');
System.assertEquals(3, i);

getLevenshteinDistance(String, Integer)

Returns the Levenshtein distance between the current String and the specified String if it is less than or equal than the given threshold; otherwise, returns -1.

Signature

public Integer getLevenshteinDistance(String stringToCompare, Integer threshold)

Parameters

stringToCompare
Type: String
threshold
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: Integer

Usage

The Levenshtein distance is the number of changes needed to change one String into another. Each change is a single character modification (deletion, insertion or substitution).

Example:

In this example, the Levenshtein distance is 3, but the threshold argument is 2, which is less than the distance, so this method returns -1.

Example

String s = 'Hello Jane';
Integer i = s.getLevenshteinDistance('Hello Max', 2);
System.assertEquals(-1, i);

hashCode()

Returns a hash code value for this string.

Signature

public Integer hashCode()

Return Value

Type: Integer

Usage

This value is based on the hash code computed by the Java String.hashCode counterpart method.

You can use this method to simplify the computation of a hash code for a custom type that contains String member variables. You can compute your type’s hash code value based on the hash code of each String variable. For example:

For more details about the use of hash code methods with custom types, see Using Custom Types in Map Keys and Sets.

Example

public class MyCustomClass {
   String x,y;
   // Provide a custom hash code
   public Integer hashCode() { return (31*x.hashCode())^(y.hashCode()); } }

indexOf(String)

Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified substring. If the substring does not occur, this method returns -1.

Signature

public Integer indexOf(String subString)

Parameters

subString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String myString1 = 'abcde';
String myString2 = 'cd';
Integer result = myString1.indexOf(mystring2);
System.assertEquals(2, result);

indexOf(String, Integer)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of the specified substring from the point of the given index. If the substring does not occur, this method returns -1.

Signature

public Integer indexOf(String substring, Integer index)

Parameters

substring
Type: String
index
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String myString1 = 'abcdabcd';
String myString2 = 'ab';
Integer result = myString1.indexOf(mystring2, 1);
System.assertEquals(4, result);

indexOfAny(String)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of any character specified in the substring. If none of the characters occur, returns -1.

Signature

public Integer indexOfAny(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String s1 = 'abcd';
String s2 = 'xc';
Integer result = s1.indexOfAny(s2);
System.assertEquals(2, result);

indexOfAnyBut(String)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of a character that is not in the specified substring. Otherwise, returns -1.

Signature

public Integer indexOfAnyBut(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String s1 = 'abcd';
String s2 = 'xc';
Integer result = s1.indexOfAnyBut(s2);
System.assertEquals(0, result);

indexOfChar(Integer)

Returns the index of the first occurrence of the character that corresponds to the specified character value.

Signature

public Integer indexOfChar(Integer character)

Parameters

character
Type: Integer
The integer value of the character in the string.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The index of the first occurrence of the specified character, -1 if the character is not found.

Usage

The index that this method returns is in Unicode code units.

Example

String str = '\\u03A9 is Ω (Omega)';
// Returns 0, which is the first character.
System.debug('indexOfChar(937)=' + str.indexOfChar(937));

// Output:
// indexOfChar(937)=0

indexOfChar(Integer, Integer)

Returns the index of the first occurrence of the character that corresponds to the specified character value, starting from the specified index.

Signature

public Integer indexOfChar(Integer character, Integer startIndex)

Parameters

character
Type: Integer
The integer value of the character to look for.
startIndex
Type: Integer
The index to start the search from.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The index, starting from the specified start index, of the first occurrence of the specified character, -1 if the character is not found.

Usage

The index that this method returns is in Unicode code units.

Example

This example shows different ways of searching for the index of the Omega character. The first call to indexOfChar doesn’t specify a start index and therefore the returned index is 0, which is the first occurrence of Omega in the entire string. The subsequent calls specify a start index to find the occurrence of Omega in substrings that start at the specified index.

String str = 'Ω and \\u03A9 and Ω';
System.debug('indexOfChar(937)=' + str.indexOfChar(937));
System.debug('indexOfChar(937,1)=' + str.indexOfChar(937,1));
System.debug('indexOfChar(937,10)=' + str.indexOfChar(937,10));

// Output:
// indexOfChar(937)=0
// indexOfChar(937,1)=6, (corresponds to the escaped form \\u03A9)
// indexOfChar(937,10)=12

indexOfDifference(String)

Returns the zero-based index of the character where the current String begins to differ from the specified String.

Signature

public Integer indexOfDifference(String stringToCompare)

Parameters

stringToCompare
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String s1 = 'abcd';
String s2 = 'abxc';
Integer result = s1.indexOfDifference(s2);
System.assertEquals(2, result);

indexOfIgnoreCase(String)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of the specified substring without regard to case. If the substring does not occur, this method returns -1.

Signature

public Integer indexOfIgnoreCase(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String s1 = 'abcd';
String s2 = 'BC';
Integer result = s1.indexOfIgnoreCase(s2, 0);
System.assertEquals(1, result);

indexOfIgnoreCase(String, Integer)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of the specified substring from the point of index i, without regard to case. If the substring does not occur, this method returns -1.

Signature

public Integer indexOfIgnoreCase(String substring, Integer startPosition)

Parameters

substring
Type: String
startPosition
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: Integer

isAllLowerCase()

Returns true if all characters in the current String are lowercase; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isAllLowerCase()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String allLower = 'abcde';
System.assert(allLower.isAllLowerCase());

isAllUpperCase()

Returns true if all characters in the current String are uppercase; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isAllUpperCase()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String allUpper = 'ABCDE';
System.assert(allUpper.isAllUpperCase());

isAlpha()

Returns true if all characters in the current String are Unicode letters only; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isAlpha()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

// Letters only
                                    
String s1 = 'abc'; // Returns true
Boolean b1 = s1.isAlpha(); System.assertEquals( true, b1); // Letters and numbers
String s2 = 'abc 21'; // Returns false
Boolean b2 = s2.isAlpha(); System.assertEquals( false, b2);

isAlphaSpace()

Returns true if all characters in the current String are Unicode letters or spaces only; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isAlphaSpace()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String alphaSpace = 'aA Bb';
System.assert(alphaSpace.isAlphaSpace());
String notAlphaSpace = 'ab 12';
System.assert(!notAlphaSpace.isAlphaSpace());
notAlphaSpace = 'aA$Bb';
System.assert(!notAlphaSpace.isAlphaSpace());

isAlphanumeric()

Returns true if all characters in the current String are Unicode letters or numbers only; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isAlphanumeric()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

// Letters only
                                    
String s1 = 'abc'; // Returns true
Boolean b1 = s1.isAlphanumeric(); System.assertEquals( true, b1); // Letters and numbers
String s2 = 'abc021'; // Returns true
Boolean b2 = s2.isAlphanumeric(); System.assertEquals( true, b2);

isAlphanumericSpace()

Returns true if all characters in the current String are Unicode letters, numbers, or spaces only; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isAlphanumericSpace()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String alphanumSpace = 'AE 86';
System.assert(alphanumSpace.isAlphanumericSpace());
String notAlphanumSpace = 'aA$12';
System.assert(!notAlphanumSpace.isAlphaSpace());

isAsciiPrintable()

Returns true if the current String contains only ASCII printable characters; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isAsciiPrintable()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String ascii = 'abcd1234!@#$%^&*()`~-_+={[}]|:<,>.?';
System.assert(ascii.isAsciiPrintable());
String notAscii = '√';
System.assert(!notAscii.isAsciiPrintable());

isBlank(String)

Returns true if the specified String is white space, empty (''), or null; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public static Boolean isBlank(String inputString)

Parameters

inputString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String blank = '';
String nullString = null;
String whitespace = '  ';
System.assert(String.isBlank(blank));
System.assert(String.isBlank(nullString));
System.assert(String.isBlank(whitespace));
String alpha = 'Hello';
System.assert(!String.isBlank(alpha));

isEmpty(String)

Returns true if the specified String is empty ('') or null; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public static Boolean isEmpty(String inputString)

Parameters

inputString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String empty = '';
String nullString = null;
System.assert(String.isEmpty(empty));
System.assert(String.isEmpty(nullString));
String whitespace = '  ';
String alpha = 'Hello';
System.assert(!String.isEmpty(whitespace));
System.assert(!String.isEmpty(alpha));

isNotBlank(String)

Returns true if the specified String is not whitespace, not empty (''), and not null; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public static Boolean isNotBlank(String inputString)

Parameters

inputString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String alpha = 'Hello world!';
System.assert(String.isNotBlank(alpha));
String blank = '';
String nullString = null;
String whitespace = '  ';
System.assert(!String.isNotBlank(blank));
System.assert(!String.isNotBlank(nullString));
System.assert(!String.isNotBlank(whitespace));

isNotEmpty(String)

Returns true if the specified String is not empty ('') and not null; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public static Boolean isNotEmpty(String inputString)

Parameters

inputString
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String whitespace = '  ';
String alpha = 'Hello world!';
System.assert(String.isNotEmpty(whitespace));
System.assert(String.isNotEmpty(alpha));
String empty = '';
String nullString = null;
System.assert(!String.isNotEmpty(empty));
System.assert(!String.isNotEmpty(nullString));

isNumeric()

Returns true if the current String contains only Unicode digits; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isNumeric()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Usage

A decimal point (1.2) is not a Unicode digit.

Example

String numeric = '1234567890';
System.assert(numeric.isNumeric());
String alphanumeric = 'R32';
String decimalPoint = '1.2';
System.assert(!alphanumeric.isNumeric());
System.assert(!decimalpoint.isNumeric());

isNumericSpace()

Returns true if the current String contains only Unicode digits or spaces; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isNumericSpace()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Usage

A decimal point (1.2) is not a Unicode digit.

Example

String numericSpace = '1 2 3';
System.assert(numericSpace.isNumericspace());
String notNumericspace = 'FD3S FC3S';
System.assert(!notNumericspace.isNumericspace());

isWhitespace()

Returns true if the current String contains only white space characters or is empty; otherwise, returns false.

Signature

public Boolean isWhitespace()

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String whitespace = ' ';
String blank = '';
System.assert(whitespace.isWhitespace());
System.assert(blank.isWhitespace());
String alphanum = 'SIL80';
System.assert(!alphanum.isWhitespace());

join(Object, String)

Joins the elements of the specified iterable object, such as a List, into a single String separated by the specified separator.

Signature

public static String join(Object iterableObj, String separator)

Parameters

iterableObj
Type: Object
separator
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

List<Integer> li = new 
   List<Integer> 
   {10, 20, 30};
String s = String.join(
   li, '/');
System.assertEquals(
   '10/20/30', s);

lastIndexOf(String)

Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified substring. If the substring does not occur, this method returns -1.

Signature

public Integer lastIndexOf(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String s1 = 'abcdefgc';
Integer i1 = s1.lastIndexOf('c');
System.assertEquals(7, i1);

lastIndexOf(String, Integer)

Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified substring, starting from the character at index 0 and ending at the specified index.

Signature

public Integer lastIndexOf(String substring, Integer endPosition)

Parameters

substring
Type: String
endPosition
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: Integer

Usage

If the substring doesn’t occur or endPosition is negative, this method returns -1. If endPosition is larger than the last index in the current String, the entire String is searched.

Example

String s1 = 'abcdaacd';
Integer i1 = 
   s1.lastIndexOf('c', 7);
System.assertEquals(
   6, i1);
Integer i2 = 
   s1.lastIndexOf('c', 3);
System.assertEquals(
   2, i2);

lastIndexOfChar(Integer)

Returns the index of the last occurrence of the character that corresponds to the specified character value.

Signature

public Integer indexOfChar(Integer character)

Parameters

character
Type: Integer
The integer value of the character in the string.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The index of the last occurrence of the specified character, -1 if the character is not found.

Usage

The index that this method returns is in Unicode code units.

Example

String str = '\u03A9 is Ω (Omega)';
// Get the last occurrence of Omega.
System.assertEquals(5, str.lastIndexOfChar(937));

lastIndexOfChar(Integer, Integer)

Returns the index of the last occurrence of the character that corresponds to the specified character value, starting from the specified index.

Signature

public Integer lastIndexOfChar(Integer character, Integer endIndex)

Parameters

character
Type: Integer
The integer value of the character to look for.
endIndex
Type: Integer
The index to end the search at.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The index, starting from the specified start index, of the last occurrence of the specified character. -1 if the character is not found.

Usage

The index that this method returns is in Unicode code units.

Example

This example shows different ways of searching for the index of the last occurrence of the Omega character. The first call to lastIndexOfChar doesn’t specify an end index and therefore the returned index is 12, which is the last occurrence of Omega in the entire string. The subsequent calls specify an end index to find the last occurrence of Omega in substrings.

String str = 'Ω and \u03A9 and Ω';
System.assertEquals(12, str.lastIndexOfChar(937));
System.assertEquals(6, str.lastIndexOfChar(937,11));
System.assertEquals(0, str.lastIndexOfChar(937,5));

lastIndexOfIgnoreCase(String)

Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified substring regardless of case.

Signature

public Integer lastIndexOfIgnoreCase(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Integer

Usage

If the substring doesn’t occur, this method returns -1.

Example

String s1 = 'abcdaacd';
Integer i1 = 
   s1.lastIndexOfIgnoreCase('DAAC');
System.assertEquals(
   3, i1);

lastIndexOfIgnoreCase(String, Integer)

Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified substring regardless of case, starting from the character at index 0 and ending at the specified index.

Signature

public Integer lastIndexOfIgnoreCase(String substring, Integer endPosition)

Parameters

substring
Type: String
endPosition
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: Integer

Usage

If the substring doesn’t occur or endPosition is negative, this method returns -1. If endPosition is larger than the last index in the current String, the entire String is searched.

Example

String s1 = 'abcdaacd';
Integer i1 = 
   s1.lastIndexOfIgnoreCase('C', 7);
System.assertEquals(
   6, i1);

left(Integer)

Returns the leftmost characters of the current String of the specified length.

Signature

public String left(Integer length)

Parameters

length
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

If length is greater than the String size, the entire String is returned.

Example

String s1 = 'abcdaacd';
String s2 = 
   s1.left(3);
System.assertEquals(
   'abc', s2);

leftPad(Integer)

Returns the current String padded with spaces on the left and of the specified length.

Signature

public String leftPad(Integer length)

Parameters

length
Type: Integer

Usage

If length is less than or equal to the current String size, the entire String is returned without space padding.

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'abc';
String s2 = 
   s1.leftPad(5);
System.assertEquals(
   '  abc', s2);

length()

Returns the number of 16-bit Unicode characters contained in the String.

Signature

public Integer length()

Return Value

Type: Integer

Example

String myString = 'abcd';
Integer result = myString.length();
System.assertEquals(result, 4);

mid(Integer, Integer)

Returns a new String that begins with the character at the specified zero-based startIndex with the number of characters specified by length.

Signature

public String mid(Integer startIndex, Integer length)

Parameters

startIndex
Type: Integer
If startIndex is negative, it is considered to be zero.
length
Type: Integer
If length is negative or zero, an empty String is returned. If length is greater than the remaining characters, the remainder of the String is returned.

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

This method is similar to the substring(startIndex) and substring(startIndex, endIndex) methods, except that the second argument is the number of characters to return.

Example

String s = 'abcde';
String s2 = s.mid(2, 3);
System.assertEquals(
   'cde', s2);

normalizeSpace()

Returns the current String with leading, trailing, and repeating white space characters removed.

Signature

public String normalizeSpace()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

This method normalizes the following white space characters: space, tab (\t), new line (\n), carriage return (\r), and form feed (\f).

Example

String s1 = 
   'Salesforce \t     force.com';
String s2 = 
   s1.normalizeSpace();
System.assertEquals(
   'Salesforce force.com', s2);

offsetByCodePoints(Integer, Integer)

Returns the index of the Unicode code point that is offset by the specified number of code points, starting from the given index.

Signature

public Integer offsetByCodePoints(Integer index, Integer codePointOffset)

Parameters

index
Type: Integer
The start index in the string.
codePointOffset
Type: Integer
The number of code points to be offset.

Return Value

Type: Integer

The index that corresponds to the start index that is added to the offset.

Usage

Unpaired surrogates within the text range that is specified by index and codePointOffset count as one code point each.

Example

This example calls offsetByCodePoints on a string with a start index of 0 (to start from the first character) and an offset of threee code points. The string contains one sequence of supplementary characters in escaped form (a pair of characters). After an offset of three code points when counting from the beginning of the string, the returned code point index is four.

String str = 'A \uD835\uDD0A BC';
System.assertEquals(4, str.offsetByCodePoints(0,3));

remove(String)

Removes all occurrences of the specified substring and returns the String result.

Signature

public String remove(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Salesforce and force.com';
String s2 = 
   s1.remove('force');
System.assertEquals(
   'Sales and .com', s2);

removeEnd(String)

Removes the specified substring only if it occurs at the end of the String.

Signature

public String removeEnd(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Salesforce and force.com';
String s2 = 
   s1.removeEnd('.com');
System.assertEquals(
   'Salesforce and force', s2);

removeEndIgnoreCase(String)

Removes the specified substring only if it occurs at the end of the String using a case-insensitive match.

Signature

public String removeEndIgnoreCase(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Salesforce and force.com';
String s2 = 
   s1.removeEndIgnoreCase('.COM');
System.assertEquals(
   'Salesforce and force', s2);

removeStart(String)

Removes the specified substring only if it occurs at the beginning of the String.

Signature

public String removeStart(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Salesforce and force.com';
String s2 = 
   s1.removeStart('Sales');
System.assertEquals(
   'force and force.com', s2);

removeStartIgnoreCase(String)

Removes the specified substring only if it occurs at the beginning of the String using a case-insensitive match.

Signature

public String removeStartIgnoreCase(String substring)

Parameters

substring
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Salesforce and force.com';
String s2 = 
   s1.removeStartIgnoreCase('SALES');
System.assertEquals(
   'force and force.com', s2);

repeat(Integer)

Returns the current String repeated the specified number of times.

Signature

public String repeat(Integer numTimes)

Parameters

numTimes
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'SFDC';
String s2 = 
   s1.repeat(2);
System.assertEquals(
   'SFDCSFDC', s2);

repeat(String, Integer)

Returns the current String repeated the specified number of times using the specified separator to separate the repeated Strings.

Signature

public String repeat(String separator, Integer numTimes)

Parameters

separator
Type: String
numTimes
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'SFDC';
String s2 = 
   s1.repeat('-', 2);
System.assertEquals(
   'SFDC-SFDC', s2);

replace(String, String)

Replaces each substring of a string that matches the literal target sequence target with the specified literal replacement sequence replacement.

Signature

public String replace(String target, String replacement)

Parameters

target
Type: String
replacement
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'abcdbca';
String target = 'bc';
String replacement = 'xy';
String s2 = s1.replace(target, replacement);
System.assertEquals('axydxya', s2);

replaceAll(String, String)

Replaces each substring of a string that matches the regular expression regExp with the replacement sequence replacement.

Signature

public String replaceAll(String regExp, String replacement)

Parameters

regExp
Type: String
replacement
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

See the Java Pattern class for information on regular expressions.

Example

String s1 = 'a b c 5 xyz';
String regExp = '[a-zA-z]';
String replacement = '1';
String s2 = s1.replaceAll(regExp, replacement);
System.assertEquals('1 1 1 5 111', s2);

replaceFirst(String, String)

Replaces the first substring of a string that matches the regular expression regExp with the replacement sequence replacement.

Signature

public String replaceFirst(String regExp, String replacement)

Parameters

regExp
Type: String
replacement
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

See the Java Pattern class for information on regular expressions.

Example

String s1 = 'a b c 11 xyz';
String regExp = '[a-zA-z]{2}';
String replacement = '2';
String s2 = s1.replaceFirst(regExp, replacement);
System.assertEquals('a b c 11 2z', s2);

reverse()

Returns a String with all the characters reversed.

Signature

public String reverse()

Return Value

Type: String

right(Integer)

Returns the rightmost characters of the current String of the specified length.

Signature

public String right(Integer length)

Parameters

length
Type: Integer
If length is greater than the String size, the entire String is returned.

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Hello Max';
String s2 = 
   s1.right(3);
System.assertEquals(
   'Max', s2);

rightPad(Integer)

Returns the current String padded with spaces on the right and of the specified length.

Signature

public String rightPad(Integer length)

Parameters

length
Type: Integer
If length is less than or equal to the current String size, the entire String is returned without space padding.

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'abc';
String s2 = 
   s1.rightPad(5);
System.assertEquals(
   'abc  ', s2);

split(String, Integer)

Returns a list that contains each substring of the String that is terminated by the regular expression regExp, or the end of the String.

Signature

public String[] split(String regExp, Integer limit)

Parameters

regExp
Type: String
limit
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String[]

Usage

See the Java Pattern class for information on regular expressions.

The substrings are placed in the list in the order in which they occur in the String.If regExp does not match any part of the String, the resulting list has just one element containing the original String.

The optional limit parameter controls the number of times the pattern is applied and therefore affects the length of the list:
  • If limit is greater than zero, the pattern is applied at most limit - 1 times, the list's length is no greater than limit, and the list's last entry contains all input beyond the last matched delimiter.
  • If limit is non-positive then the pattern is applied as many times as possible and the list can have any length.
  • If limit is zero then the pattern is applied as many times as possible, the list can have any length, and trailing empty strings are discarded.
For example, for String s = 'boo:and:foo':
  • s.split(':', 2) results in {'boo', 'and:foo'}
  • s.split(':', 5) results in {'boo', 'and', 'foo'}
  • s.split(':', -2) results in {'boo', 'and', 'foo'}
  • s.split('o', 5) results in {'b', '', ':and:f', '', ''}
  • s.split('o', -2) results in {'b', '', ':and:f', '', ''}
  • s.split('o', 0) results in {'b', '', ':and:f'}

Example

In the following example, a string is split, using a backslash as a delimiter.

public String splitPath(String filename) {
    if (filename == null)
        return null;
    List<String> parts = filename.split('\\\\');
    filename = parts[parts.size()-1];
    return filename;
}

// For example, if the file path is e:\\processed\\PPDSF100111.csv
// This method splits the path and returns the last part.
// Returned filename is PPDSF100111.csv

splitByCharacterType()

Splits the current String by character type and returns a list of contiguous character groups of the same type as complete tokens.

Signature

public List<String> splitByCharacterType()

Return Value

Type: List<String>

Usage

For more information about the character types used, see java.lang.Character.getType(char).

Example

String s1 = 'Force.com platform';
List<String> ls = 
   s1.splitByCharacterType();
System.debug(ls);
// Writes this output:
// (F, orce, ., com, , platform)

splitByCharacterTypeCamelCase()

Splits the current String by character type and returns a list of contiguous character groups of the same type as complete tokens, with the following exception: the uppercase character, if any, immediately preceding a lowercase character token belongs to the following character token rather than to the preceding.

Signature

public List<String> splitByCharacterTypeCamelCase()

Return Value

Type: List<String>

Usage

For more information about the character types used, see java.lang.Character.getType(char).

Example

String s1 = 'Force.com platform';
List<String> ls = 
   s1.splitByCharacterTypeCamelCase();
System.debug(ls);
// Writes this output:
// (Force, ., com, , platform)

startsWith(String)

Returns true if the String that called the method begins with the specified prefix.

Signature

public Boolean startsWith(String prefix)

Parameters

prefix
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s1 = 'AE86 vs EK9';
System.assert(s1.startsWith('AE86'));

startsWithIgnoreCase(String)

Returns true if the current String begins with the specified prefix regardless of the prefix case.

Signature

public Boolean startsWithIgnoreCase(String prefix)

Parameters

prefix
Type: String

Return Value

Type: Boolean

Example

String s1 = 'AE86 vs EK9';
System.assert(s1.startsWithIgnoreCase('ae86'));

stripHtmlTags(String)

Removes HTML markup from the input string and returns the plain text.

Signature

public String stripHtmlTags(String htmlInput)

Parameters

htmlInput
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = '<b>hello world</b>';
String s2 = s1.stripHtmlTags();
System.assertEquals(
   'hello world', s2);

substring(Integer)

Returns a new String that begins with the character at the specified zero-based startIndex and extends to the end of the String.

Signature

public String substring(Integer startIndex)

Parameters

startIndex
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'hamburger';
System.assertEquals('burger', s1.substring(3));

substring(Integer, Integer)

Returns a new String that begins with the character at the specified zero-based startIndex and extends to the character at endIndex - 1.

Signature

public String substring(Integer startIndex, Integer endIndex)

Parameters

startIndex
Type: Integer
endIndex
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String

Example

'hamburger'.substring(4, 8); 
// Returns "urge"

'smiles'.substring(1, 5); // Returns "mile"

substringAfter(String)

Returns the substring that occurs after the first occurrence of the specified separator.

Signature

public String substringAfter(String separator)

Parameters

separator
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Force.com.platform';
String s2 = 
   s1.substringAfter('.');
System.assertEquals(
   'com.platform', s2);

substringAfterLast(String)

Returns the substring that occurs after the last occurrence of the specified separator.

Signature

public String substringAfterLast(String separator)

Parameters

separator
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Force.com.platform';
String s2 = 
   s1.substringAfterLast('.');
System.assertEquals(
   'platform', s2);

substringBefore(String)

Returns the substring that occurs before the first occurrence of the specified separator.

Signature

public String substringBefore(String separator)

Parameters

separator
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Force.com.platform';
String s2 = 
   s1.substringBefore('.');
System.assertEquals(
   'Force', s2);

substringBeforeLast(String)

Returns the substring that occurs before the last occurrence of the specified separator.

Signature

public String substringBeforeLast(String separator)

Parameters

separator
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'Force.com.platform';
String s2 = 
   s1.substringBeforeLast('.');
System.assertEquals(
   'Force.com', s2);

substringBetween(String)

Returns the substring that occurs between two instances of the specified String.

Signature

public String substringBetween(String tag)

Parameters

tag
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'tagYellowtag';
String s2 = 
   s1.substringBetween('tag');
System.assertEquals(
   'Yellow', s2);

substringBetween(String, String)

Returns the substring that occurs between the two specified Strings.

Signature

public String substringBetween(String open, String close)

Parameters

open
Type: String
close
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'xYellowy';
String s2 = 
   s1.substringBetween('x','y');
System.assertEquals(
   'Yellow', s2);

swapCase(String, String)

Swaps the case of all characters and returns the resulting String.

Signature

public String swapCase(String open, String close)

Parameters

open
Type: String
close
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

Upper case and title case converts to lower case, and lower case converts to upper case.

Example

String s1 = 'Force.com';
String s2 = 
   s1.swapCase();
System.assertEquals(
   'fORCE.COM', s2);

toLowerCase()

Converts all of the characters in the String to lowercase using the rules of the default locale.

Signature

public String toLowerCase()

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 'ThIs iS hArD tO rEaD';
System.assertEquals('this is hard to read',
   s1.toLowerCase());

toLowerCase(String)

Converts all of the characters in the String to lowercase using the rules of the specified locale.

Signature

public String toLowerCase(String locale)

Parameters

locale
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

// Example in Turkish
                                    
// An uppercase dotted "i", \u0304, which is İ
// Note this contains both a İ as well as a I
String s1 = 'KIYMETLİ'; String s1Lower = s1.toLowerCase('tr'); // Dotless lowercase "i", \u0131, which is ı
// Note this has both a i and ı
String expected = 'kıymetli'; System.assertEquals(expected, s1Lower); // Note if this was done in toLowerCase(‘en’), it would output ‘kiymetli’

toUpperCase()

Converts all of the characters in the String to uppercase using the rules of the default locale.

Signature

public String toUpperCase()

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String myString1 = 'abcd';
String myString2 = 'ABCD';
myString1 = 
   myString1.toUpperCase();
Boolean result = 
   myString1.equals(myString2);
System.assertEquals(result, true);

toUpperCase(String)

Converts all of the characters in the String to the uppercase using the rules of the specified locale.

Signature

public String toUpperCase(String locale)

Parameters

locale
Type: String

Return Value

Type: String

Example

// Example in Turkish
                                    
// Dotless lowercase "i", \u0131, which is ı
// Note this has both a i and ı
String s1 = 'imkansız'; String s1Upper = s1.toUpperCase('tr'); // An uppercase dotted "i", \u0304, which is İ
// Note this contains both a İ as well as a I
String expected = 'İMKANSIZ'; System.assertEquals(expected, s1Upper);

trim()

Returns a copy of the string that no longer contains any leading or trailing white space characters.

Signature

public String trim()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

Leading and trailing ASCII control characters such as tabs and newline characters are also removed. White space and control characters that aren’t at the beginning or end of the sentence aren’t removed.

Example

String s1 = '   Hello!   ';
String trimmed = s1.trim();
system.assertEquals('Hello!', trimmed);

uncapitalize()

Returns the current String with the first letter in lowercase.

Signature

public String uncapitalize()

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 
   'Hello max';
String s2 = 
   s1.uncapitalize();
System.assertEquals(
   'hello max', 
    s2);

unescapeCsv()

Returns a String representing an unescaped CSV column.

Signature

public String unescapeCsv()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

If the String is enclosed in double quotes and contains a comma, newline or double quote, quotes are removed. Also, any double quote escaped characters (a pair of double quotes) are unescaped to just one double quote.

If the String is not enclosed in double quotes, or is and does not contain a comma, newline or double quote, it is returned unchanged.

Example

String s1 = 
   '"Max1, ""Max2"""';
String s2 = 
   s1.unescapeCsv();
System.assertEquals(
   'Max1, "Max2"', 
    s2);

unescapeEcmaScript()

Unescapes any EcmaScript literals found in the String.

Signature

public String unescapeEcmaScript()

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 
   '\"3.8\",\"3.9\"';
String s2 = 
   s1.unescapeEcmaScript();
System.assertEquals(
   '"3.8","3.9"',
   s2);

unescapeHtml3()

Unescapes the characters in a String using HTML 3.0 entities.

Signature

public String unescapeHtml3()

Return Value

Type: String

Example

String s1 = 
   '&quot;&lt;Black&amp;White&gt;&quot;';
String s2 = 
   s1.unescapeHtml3();
System.assertEquals(
   '"<Black&White>"',
   s2);

unescapeHtml4()

Unescapes the characters in a String using HTML 4.0 entities.

Signature

public String unescapeHtml4()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

If an entity isn’t recognized, it is kept as is in the returned string.

Example

String s1 = 
   '&quot;&lt;Black&amp;White&gt;&quot;';
String s2 = 
   s1.unescapeHtml4();
System.assertEquals(
   '"<Black&White>"',
   s2);

unescapeJava()

Returns a String whose Java literals are unescaped. Literals unescaped include escape sequences for quotes (\\") and control characters, such as tab (\\t), and carriage return (\\n).

Signature

public String unescapeJava()

Return Value

Type: String

The unescaped string.

Example

String s = 'Company: \\"Salesforce.com\\"';
String unescapedStr = s.unescapeJava();
System.assertEquals('Company: "Salesforce.com"', unescapedStr);

unescapeUnicode()

Returns a String whose escaped Unicode characters are unescaped.

Signature

public String unescapeUnicode()

Return Value

Type: String

The unescaped string.

Example

String s = 'De onde voc\u00EA \u00E9?';
String unescapedStr = s.unescapeUnicode();
System.assertEquals('De onde você é?', unescapedStr);

unescapeXml()

Unescapes the characters in a String using XML entities.

Signature

public String unescapeXml()

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

Supports only the five basic XML entities (gt, lt, quot, amp, apos). Does not support DTDs or external entities.

Example

String s1 = 
   '&quot;&lt;Black&amp;White&gt;&quot;';
String s2 = 
   s1.unescapeXml();
System.assertEquals(
   '"<Black&White>"',
   s2);

valueOf(Date)

Returns a String that represents the specified Date in the standard “yyyy-MM-dd” format.

Signature

public static String valueOf(Date dateToConvert)

Parameters

dateToConvert
Type: Date

Return Value

Type: String

Example

Date myDate = Date.Today();
String sDate = String.valueOf(myDate);

valueOf(Datetime)

Returns a String that represents the specified Datetime in the standard “yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss” format for the local time zone.

Signature

public static String valueOf(Datetime datetimeToConvert)

Parameters

datetimeToConvert
Type: Datetime

Return Value

Type: String

Example

DateTime dt = datetime.newInstance(1996, 6, 23);
String sDateTime = String.valueOf(dt);
System.assertEquals('1996-06-23 00:00:00', sDateTime);

valueOf(Decimal)

Returns a String that represents the specified Decimal.

Signature

public static String valueOf(Decimal decimalToConvert)

Parameters

decimalToConvert
Type: Decimal

Return Value

Type: String

Example

Decimal dec = 3.14159265;
String sDecimal = String.valueOf(dec);
System.assertEquals('3.14159265', sDecimal);

valueOf(Double)

Returns a String that represents the specified Double.

Signature

public static String valueOf(Double doubleToConvert)

Parameters

doubleToConvert
Type: Double

Return Value

Type: String

Example

Double myDouble = 12.34;
String myString = 
   String.valueOf(myDouble);
System.assertEquals(
  '12.34', myString);

valueOf(Integer)

Returns a String that represents the specified Integer.

Signature

public static String valueOf(Integer integerToConvert)

Parameters

integerToConvert
Type: Integer

Return Value

Type: String

Example

Integer myInteger = 22;
String sInteger = String.valueOf(myInteger);
System.assertEquals('22', sInteger);

valueOf(Long)

Returns a String that represents the specified Long.

Signature

public static String valueOf(Long longToConvert)

Parameters

longToConvert
Type: Long

Return Value

Type: String

Example

Long myLong = 123456789;
String sLong = String.valueOf(myLong);
System.assertEquals('123456789', sLong);

valueOf(Object)

Returns a string representation of the specified object argument.

Signature

public static String valueOf(Object toConvert)

Parameters

toConvert
Type: Object

Return Value

Type: String

Usage

If the argument is not a String, the valueOf method converts it into a String by calling the toString method on the argument, if available, or any overridden toString method if the argument is a user-defined type. Otherwise, if no toString method is available, it returns a String representation of the argument.

Example

List<Integer> ls = 
  new List<Integer>();
ls.add(10);
ls.add(20);
String strList = 
   String.valueOf(ls);
System.assertEquals(
  '(10, 20)', strList);

valueOfGmt(Datetime)

Returns a String that represents the specified Datetime in the standard “yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss” format for the GMT time zone.

Signature

public static String valueOfGmt(Datetime datetimeToConvert)

Parameters

datetimeToConvert
Type: Datetime

Return Value

Type: String

Example

// For a PST timezone:
DateTime dt = datetime.newInstance(2001, 9, 14);
String sDateTime = String.valueOfGmt(dt);
System.assertEquals('2001-09-14 07:00:00', sDateTime);
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